Twisted pair cable is just what its name implies; insulated wires housed within a protective casing with a specified number of twist per foot of distance. Twisting of wires reduces the effect of electromagnetic interface which may be generated from nearby electric motors, florescent tube lights etc. Shielded Twisted-Pair(STP) cables are provided with shielding and additional insultation over the cluster of wires to protect it from outside noise. Unsheilded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are mostly used…"Twisted Pair Cable Used in Guided Media of Transmission"
The first version of Ethernet was based on coxial cable. The original form of Ethernet 10 Base-5 used a thick Coaxial cable that was not directly connected to the computer’s NIC (Network Interface Card). An attachment unit Interface (AUI) ran from a DB15 connector on the back side of the NIC to the thick coax. A “vampire tap” is inserted into the thick coax to which the AUI is connected. Another version of coaxial cables…"Transmission’s Guided media with Coxial Cable"
Transmission media is the physical path that carry data from transmitter to receiver. The signals Transmitted from one device to another device in the form of electromagnetic energy with the help of transmission media. The Transmission media can be divided into two classes:: Guided Media and Unguided Media. Gutded transmission media uses a cabling system that guides the data signals along a specific path. The data signals are bounded by the cabling system. Guided media…"Guided Media of Transmission in Communication"
There are not much difference between the OSI and TCP/IP reference model. In both, the concept of independent stack of protocols is used. The function of the layer are also more or less same. In both model, starting from bottom up to transport layer, the functions of the layers is to provide end-to-end network independent transport service for communicating processes. The layers above the transport layer are application oriented. On the other hand there are…"Comparison of ISO-OSI and TCP/IP Reference Model"
The internet model of network architecture, also known as TCP/IP reference model, was developed much earlier then the OSI reference model. It was developed from the US department of Defence’s (DoD) research network the ARPANET. Eventually the ARPANET connected many universities and other government organizations. During the process of interconnecting all these through the exising telephone lines, satellite link and therefore, a new architecture was needed to overcome that. The architecture thus came out became…"The Internet (TCP/IP) reference model of network architecture."
A layer can offers two different types of services to the layer immediately above it – connection-oriented and connectionless service. In connection oriented service user establish a connection at first, communicates over the connection and at last release the connection. It is similar to a telephone system. In connectionless service no connection is established beforehand. Instead, like in a postal system, every message caries its full destination address and each routed independently to its destination,…"Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Service."
When we study the subject of computer network, we encounter many terminologies associated with the subject. Some terminologies are briefly described below. 1. Entity :: The active component in each layer are called entities. Entity can be a software process or hardware like an intelligent input/output device etc. 2. Peer Entity :: Entities in the same layer running on different machines are called peer entities. 3. Service provider and service user :: In a layered…"Terminologies Associated with Computer Network"
The session layer :: This layer offers facility to different users on different computer to establish session between them. A session allow an user to remotely log into a distant machine and transfer file between the two machines. Session layer perform token management to provide unidirectional communication. It also provides a service called synchronization. The Presentation layer :: This layer performs data presentation job by following syntax and semantics rules. Before presenting data to user,…"The Session, the Presentation and the Application layer of Network."
Normally, the transport layer creates individual connection for each session. If high throughput is required, the transport layer may establish multiple network connections, dividing the data among individual connection thereby improving the through put. To reduce cost the transport layer may also multiplex several transport connections on to the network connection. However, multiple connections or multiplexing must not be seen by the session layer. The transport layer may also determines the type of service given…"The Transport Layer of Network"
The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. The layer is to determine how packets are routed from source to destination. The routing may be static or dynamic depending on traffic load and availability of channel. Too many packets may cause congestion and control of such congestion is also a duty of network layer. The subnet operation require cost, hence some accounting function is also there built into the network layer. When a packet…"The network layer of network."